Committee on Damage by Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings (London, 1981).
They are widely used as disinfectants. Other sources are jet plane emissions which contain chlorofluorocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbons are also used in refrigeration and formation of certain types of solid plastic foams. Burning of plastics produces polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The latter are persistent and pass into the food chain. Chlorofluorocarbons and carbon tetrachloride react with ozone layers of stratosphere and hence deplete the same.
The Causes and Effects of Smoking
Scientists and health officials have been arguing the detrimental effects smoking has on our health for many years. Smoking can lead to serious complications including asthma, pancreas, lung and stomach cancer due to the large number of carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals) and other various substances added to it. It is a health hazard for both smokers and non-smokers and it is especially harmful to unborn babies. Although smokers claim that it helps them to relax and release stress, the negative aspects of the habit take over the positive. As it has been stressed by the scientists and experts, there are some very severe reasons of smoking but its crucial consequences should also be taken into consideration.
There are many causes which make people smoke, however it can be divided into two main causes: physical and psychological. First cause which is physical concerns the human body’s needs. Nicotine contained in cigarette is an addictive substance. It is the chemical which causes addiction. Nicotine reduces tension in the muscles and allows smokers to relax so they feel that they can relieve stress by smoking. Nicotine can also have a calming effect on people who are anxious and worried. This is why it can bring a feeling of tranquility and help smokers to cope with stress. Thus, people smoke when they are depressed, lonely or bored. Nicotine is absorbed by the smoker’s lung and intestines. Very quickly, nicotine can stimulate brain and certain types of nerves so heart rate and blood pressure go up; respiration increases. A little nicotine makes smokers feel more energy and improve concentration. As a consequence, these physical effects created by smoking play an important role in making people feel the need to smoke.
Second main cause of smoking is psychological which seems to be a very important factor for people to get the habit. One of the psychological situations which drive people to smoke is low self esteem. Low self esteem is linked not only to smoking but also other behavioral problems such as drinking. It leads to feeling like a dependent individual who can not make decisions for himself or herself and just follow the crowd. So one conclusion to be drawn from this aspect is that people with low self esteem tend to smoke by imitating the people that they see around themselves especially in public place...
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... blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol levels or excessive body weight.
One last very severe effect of smoking is teeth decay. The reason for teeth decay is tobacco products which damage your gum tissue by affecting the attachment of bone and soft tissue to your teeth. An example of the effect is receding gums. A receding gum line exposes the tooth roots and increases your risk of developing a sensitivity to hot and cold, or tooth decay in these unprotected areas. Additionally, smoking can also contribute to bad breath, stains in the teeth and a build-up of tartar on the teeth.
Consequently, tobacco which contains many harmful chemicals damages human beings’ health day by day. Although people are aware of the bad effects of smoking, they still smoke for one reason or another. When the current situation is considered, it is clear that smoking which has been spreading all over the world is not only the problem of a country or a territory but the problem of mankind because smoking brings many disadvantages for humans like diseases. I personally believe that it is important to help children remain lifelong non-smokers because they are our hope for a non-smoking future.
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g. Drill cuttings dumped on the seabed result in the production of toxic sulphides in the bottom sediment thus eliminating the benthic fauna.