Control of the flexibly formed beam cross section is key to achieving low-material use design. The basic assumption is that a sheet of flexible, permeable fabric is held in a system of falsework before reinforcement and concrete are added. By varying the geometry of the fabric mould with distance along the beam, the optimised shape is created. Flexible formwork therefore has the potential to facilitate the change in design and construction philosophy that will be required for a move towards a less material intensive, more sustainable, construction industry. Its potential is further demonstrated in work by Lee. 
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Copyright © Gordon Cooke – Fire Safety Consultant UK 2012
Formerly Visiting Professor, School of Mathematical and Engineering Sciences, City University, London
Oxidation of wine to vinegar 1 - titratable acidity
Once a bottle of wine is opened and the air gets in it starts to go off (even if it is re-stoppered). It may not be noticeable for a couple of days. Initially, this off-taste is just oxidation of some of the flavour components but then it starts to get more and more acidic as the ethanol is oxidized to ethanal (acetaldehyde) and then to ethanoic acid (acetic acid) by acetic acid bacteria (called Acetobacter ). This may be okay if you want to make wine vinegar but not so good if you want the wine to be drinkable. The question is: what factors affect the ability of the bacteria to oxidize the ethanol in wine.
54. Eka Tjandranegara, 69. Mulia Group • Property, industry $690 million Eka Tjandranegara controls a majority interest in Mulia Group, a major property ...